4. In early December, authorities announced that market circuit breakers would be introduced become effective from January 1 in an effort to limit the volatility seen during the savage, summer sell-off from June. The circuit breakers would see trading in shares, options and futures halted for 15 minutes if they fell by more than 5 per cent. On their first day of use, that first threshold was breached just after the return from the lunchbreak, prompting a 15-minute halt.
5. Banks just cannot afford to keep up. At Goldman Sachs, for example, net revenues have dropped about a third since 2009, beaten down by structural shifts in trading and new rules crimping risk-taking. The bank tries to keep its pay ratio stable, so that means smaller total packages for the typical employee.
6. 9. 《大空头》(The Big Short)。亚当·麦凯(Adam McKay)把影片处理为喜剧，但在他以笑声轰炸屏幕的同时，也表明他对这场2008年经济崩溃的呈现是一场让人心碎的美国悲剧。